Multiple risk factors have been implicated in the development of osteoporosis. This study examined potential associations between serum nutritional factors and bone mineral density (BMD).
Six nutritional factors were selected as exposures. Outcomes included total body BMD (n = 66 945); BMD at the forearm (FA), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) (n = 8143, 32 735 and 28 498, respectively); estimated heel BMD (HL eBMD) (n = 394 929); and HL eBMD stratified by sex (n = 206 496). A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was adopted to estimate the association between serum nutritional factors and BMD. The threshold for adjusted p-value was 1.39×10 -3.
Serum calcium levels were inversely associated with LS BMD (effect = -0.55; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.24; P = 0.001), whereas serum selenium levels were positively correlated with HL eBMD (effect = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.33; P = 1.70×10 -4). Regarding nominal significance, there was a positive association between serum selenium levels and FA BMD. Nominally significant results were also obtained for serum retinol as well as vitamin E levels and HL eBMD. Moreover, sex-specific effects of serum retinol and vitamin E levels on BMD were observed in men.
Serum calcium and selenium levels influence BMD at specific skeletal sites. This implies that these nutritional factors play crucial roles in bone metabolism.