Renal denervation (RDN) is under investigation for treatment of uncontrolled hypertension and might represent an attractive treatment for patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk. It is important to determine whether baseline CV risk affects the efficacy of RDN.
The purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure (BP) reduction and event rates after RDN in patients with various comorbidities, testing the hypothesis that RDN is effective and durable in these high-risk populations.
BP reduction and adverse events over 3 years were evaluated for several high-risk subgroups in the GSR (Global proSpective registrY for syMPathetic renaL denervatIon in seleCted IndicatIons Through 3 Years Registry), an international registry of RDN in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (n = 2,652). Comparisons were made for patients age ≥65 years versus age <65 years, with versus without isolated systolic hypertension, with versus without atrial fibrillation, and with versus without diabetes mellitus. Baseline cardiovascular risk was estimated using the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score.
Reduction in 24-h systolic BP at 3 years was -8.9 ± 20.1 mm Hg for the overall cohort, and for high-risk subgroups, BP reduction was -10.4 ± 21.0 mm Hg for resistant hypertension, -8.7 ± 17.4 mm Hg in patients age ≥65 years, -10.2 ± 17.9 mm Hg in patients with diabetes, -8.6 ± 18.7 mm Hg in isolated systolic hypertension, -10.1 ± 20.3 mm Hg in chronic kidney disease, and -10.0 ± 19.1 mm Hg in atrial fibrillation (p < 0.0001 compared with baseline for all). BP reduction in patients with measurements at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months showed similar reductions in office and 24-h BP for patients with varying baseline ASCVD risk scores, which was sustained to 3 years. Adverse event rates at 3 years were higher for patients with higher baseline CV risk.
BP reduction after RDN was similar for patients with varying high-risk comorbidities and across the range of ASCVD risk scores. The impact of baseline risk on clinical event reduction by RDN-induced BP changes could be evaluated in further studies. (Global proSpective registrY for syMPathetic renaL denervatIon in seleCted IndicatIons Through 3 Years Registry; NCT01534299).

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