Optimal tissue oxygenation is essential for its normal function. Suboptimal oxygenation or ischemia contributes to increased mortalities during various pathological conditions such as stroke, acute kidney injury (AKI), cardiac failure. Despite the rapid progression of renal tissue injury, the mechanism underlying renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains highly unclear. Experimental in vitro and in vivo models epitomizing the fundamental process is critical to the research of the pathogenesis of IRI and the development of plausible therapeutics. In this review, we describe the in vitro and in vivo models of IRI, ranges from proximal tubular cell lines to surgery-based animal models like clamping of both renal pedicles (bilateral IRI), clamping of one renal pedicle (unilateral IRI), clamping of one/or both renal arteries/or vein, or unilateral IRI with contralateral nephrectomy (uIRIx). Also, advanced technologies like three-dimensional kidney organoids, kidney-on-a-chip are explained. This review provides thoughtful information for establishing reliable and pertinent models for studying IRI-associated acute renal pathologies.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.