Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with sensitizing EGFR mutations. However, NSCLC patients bearing mutant KRAS are inherently unresponsive to gefitinib. Defective autophagy was proposed to mediate resistance to EGFR-TKIs. In this study, the reversal of primary resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC by putative autophagy inducers was investigated.
A few putative autophagy inducers were investigated in NSCLC cells harboring KRAS or EGFR mutations. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate expression of autophagy-related genes and proteins. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity of drug combinations. Flow cytometric asssays were used to study apoptotic and cell cycle effects.
The antidiarrheal agent loperamide was identified as an autophagy inducer. Loperamide promoted the formation of autophagosomes and it potentiated the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib specifically in NSCLC cells bearing mutant KRAS and wild-type EGFR. Gefitinib-loperamide combination enhanced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, both of which could not be reversed by pharmacological autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine). Moreover, synergistic anticancer effect of gefitinib-loperamide combination was observed in both autophagy-proficient (Atg5-wild type) and -deficient (Atg5-knockout) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Loperamide overcome gefitinib resistance in NSCLC harboring mutant KRAS and wild-type EGFR through increased apoptosis but independent of autophagy induction.
Loperamide could be repurposed to overcome primary resistance to gefitinib in KRAS-mutation bearing NSCLC as it also helps relieve the common side effect of diarrhea caused by EGFR-TKIs.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.