Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent oral diseases. As viruses that may infect bacteria, bacteriophages constitute an important component of the oral microbiome. With the advances in bioinformatics and genomics, the relationships among the bacteriophages, oral microbiome and periodontal disease is gradually being elucidated. As a result, phage therapy has become an emerging approach in the fight against super bacteria and has flourished in recent years. This review article discusses the mechanisms involved in the microbial interactions associated with oral phages and periodontal disease, the role of phages in maintaining a normal periodontal environment, the relationship between the imbalance of phages and the occurrence of periodontal disease, and the use of phage in the treatment of periodontal disease in order to provides references for in-depth research on the mechanisms of phage effects on periodontal disease, as well as the further clinical application of phage therapy.