Viral respiratory infections in pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) significantly impact morbidity and mortality. It is necessary to determine the viral agents and their frequency of presentation to understand their impact on transplantation patients’ evolution.
From January 2017 to December 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study of patients who underwent HSCT with a viral respiratory infection. Viral identification was performed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction for nine respiratory viruses. Descriptive statistics were performed with a report of central tendency measures and percentages.
Of the 54 pediatric patients who underwent HSCT, 59.2% presented an airway infection; in turn, at least one viral agent was identified in 59.3% of these patients. The most frequent viral agents were influenza (25.9%), human rhinovirus (18.5%), and respiratory syncytial virus (18.5%). Viral co-infections occurred in 36.8% of the cases. The reported complications were supplemental oxygen requirement (73.6%), support with mechanical ventilation (21%), admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (15.7%), and mortality associated with a viral respiratory infection (10.5%).
Viral respiratory infections are frequent in pediatric patients with HSCT; influenza A/B virus was the most frequent agent. As morbidity and mortality increase due to these infections in patients with HSCT, strategies are necessary for its prevention and timely treatment after transplantation.

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