Studies on event-related evoked potentials have indicated that altered cortical processing of sensory stimuli is associated with migraine. However, the results depend on the experimental method and patients. Electrophysiology of resting state cortical activity has revealed compelling results regarding the pathophysiology of migraine. This review summarized the available information related to patients with episodic and chronic migraine to determine whether certain features can be used as signatures for migraine.
A recent study examined differences in resting state functional connectivity among the pain-related regions and revealed that beta connectivity was attenuated in migraine and that altered connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex was linked to migraine chronification. These findings suggested that chronification leads to neuroplasticity in the pain areas of higher-level processing rather than in areas involved in basic sensory discrimination (i.e., primary and secondary somatosensory areas). Another study discovered that the betweenness centrality of delta band in right precuneus was significantly lower in those with longer history of migraine. Electroencephalogram may also predict the treatment outcomes in patients with chronic migraine that those with lower pre-treatment occipital alpha power tend to show greater reduction in headache frequency. Studies on resting state activity have yielded convincing findings regarding aberrant oscillatory power and functional connectivity in relation to migraine, thus contributing to identifying brain signatures for migraine. The role of such assessment in precision medicine should be further investigated.

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