Dry eye disease (DED) is a common ocular surface condition across age groups. Recently, vitamin D deficiency has gained importance as a causative factor, and its supplementation alleviates symptoms of DED. Resveratrol (RES) regulates vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and Notch signaling. We investigated the role of RES on vitamin D levels and Notch signaling under hyperosmolar conditions.
Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells were treated with RES in hyperosmolar and normal conditions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot analysis were performed for estimating reactive oxygen species, VDR, secreted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and Notch signaling pathway molecules in treated and control cells.
HCE-T cells in hyperosmolar conditions had increased reactive oxygen species levels and decreased vitamin D levels that got restored in the presence of RES. Hyperosmolarity also reduced VDR expression and Notch activity that normalized to original levels with RES. In the presence of Notch blocker LY-411575, RES could not restore VDR expression or secreted vitamin D levels in HCE-T cells exposed to hyperosmolar conditions, whereas recombinant Jagged1 restored vitamin D and VDR levels.
RES restores vitamin D levels in hyperosmolar conditions most likely through activation of Notch signaling. Hence, RES can be a potential adjuvant in DED for patients considered for vitamin D treatment.