To learn more about the locations of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) that regulate form-deprivation myopia (FDM), using different transgenic mouse models.
One eye of D2R-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates was subjected to four weeks of monocular FDM, whereas the fellow eye served as control. Mice in both groups received daily intraperitoneal injections of either the D2R antagonist sulpiride (8 µg/g) or vehicle alone. FDM was also induced in retina- (Six3creD2Rfl/fl) or fibroblast-specific (S100a4creD2Rfl/fl) D2R-KO mice. A subset of retina-specific D2R-KO mice and D2Rfl/fl littermates were also given sulpiride or vehicle injections. Refraction was measured with an eccentric infrared photorefractor, and other biometric parameters were measured by optical coherence tomography (n ≈ 20 for each group).
FDM development was attenuated in wild-type littermates treated with sulpiride. However, this inhibitory effect disappeared in the D2R-KO mice, suggesting that antagonizing D2Rs suppressed myopia development. Similarly, the development of myopia was partially inhibited by retina-specific (deletion efficiency: 94.7%) but not fibroblast-specific (66.9%) D2R-KO. The sulpiride-mediated inhibitory effects on FDM also disappeared with retinal D2R-KO, suggesting that antagonizing D2Rs outside the retina may not attenuate myopia. Changes in axial length were less marked than changes in refraction, but in general the two were correlated.
This study demonstrates that D2Rs located in the retina participate in dopaminergic regulation of FDM in mice. These findings provide an important and fundamental basis for further exploring the retinal mechanism(s) involved in dopamine signaling and myopia development.