To examine retinal neurovascular changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Case-control study. A total of 171 CKD cases and 40 controls were recruited (mean age 62.9 ± 10.3 versus 60.8 ± 9.2, p = 0.257). Retinal neural parameters, including parafoveal retinal thickness (PfRT), macular ganglion cell complex thickness (GCCt), global loss volume (GLV), focal loss volume (FLV) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLt), were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Microvascular parameters, including foveal avascular zone size, vessel density over the parafoveal superficial vascular plexus (SVP-VD), parafoveal deep vascular plexus (DVP-VD) and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC-VD), were measured using OCT angiography.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients showed reduced PfRT, GCCt and RNFLt and increased GLV and FLV compared with the controls (all p < 0.005). Among patients with CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate was an independent factor associated with PfRT (coefficient 0.19, p = 0.015), GCCt (coefficient 0.10, p = 0.006), GLV (coefficient - 0.08, p = 0.001), FLV (coefficient - 0.02, p = 0.006) and RNFLt (coefficient 0.15, p = 0.002). Parafoveal retinal thickness (PfRT), GCCt, GLV, FLV and RNFLt were correlated with SVP-VD (all p < 0.001) but not with DVP-VD (all p > 0.1).
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients demonstrated a significant reduction in macular thickness and changes in retinal neural parameters. These changes were associated with the severity of CKD and correlated with the microvascular rarefaction in the parafoveal SVP.

© 2020 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.