Peritonitis is a common cause of hospitalisation and death among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Periodic retraining is recommended to prevent peritonitis, especially in older adults.
We evaluated the effectiveness of a retraining programme for reducing peritonitis and exit site infection rates in older adults on peritoneal dialysis. The cost-benefit ratio was also calculated.
A two-arm prospective randomised controlled trial.
One hundred and thirty patients aged 55 years or older were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. While both groups received usual care, the intervention group received a retraining programme (a knowledge and practical assessment and a one-on-one retraining session) 90 days after starting home-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy.
The outcomes included peritonitis rate, exit site infection rate and direct medical costs at 180, 270, and 360 days after starting home-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy.
No significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics between groups. The peritonitis rates were 0.11 episodes per patient-year in the intervention group versus 0.13 in the control group. The incidence of exit site infection was 20.0% in the intervention group and 12.3% in the control group. The cost-benefit ratio of retraining was 1:9.6. None of the results were statistically significant.
The absence of statistical significance may be partly explained by the premature termination of the study. Large-scale multi-centre trials are warranted to examine the effectiveness of retraining. The timing and long-term effects of retraining also need to be examined.

© 2022 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.