To assess and compare clinical features of a ridge-shaped macula (defined as macular elevation only in one meridian across the fovea) in individuals younger than 20 years with those of a dome-shaped macula (DSM) in patients aged 20+ years.
The retrospective observational case series study included 185 highly myopic eyes of 100 consecutive patients younger than 20 years, who were compared with highly myopic patients with DSMs, aged 20+ years and examined in previous studies.
Seventeen (9.2%) eyes of the highly myopic young patients showed macular elevations all of which ran only in the horizontal direction across the vertical optical coherence tomographic section fulfilled the definition of a ridge and did not show any staphylomas or any macular Bruch membrane defects. By contrast, in the older patients with DSMs, the DSMs were significantly higher and had a narrower base than the ridges in the young patients, and showed macular Bruch membrane defects in their vicinity, with the axial length being significantly longer, the myopic maculopathy more severe, and the subfoveal choroid thinner.
Macular elevations detected in children and adolescents are usually ridge-shaped maculas and do not have the characteristics of DSMs. In comparison with DSMs, ridge-shaped maculas do not show a spatial association with macular Bruch membrane defects or posterior staphylomas and have a wider basis and smoother elevation slope. As a hypothesis, ridge-shaped maculas may be due to a folding of Bruch membrane at the posterior pole, potentially caused by an asymmetrical enlargement of Bruch membrane in the equatorial region.