To determine the risk factors, causative organisms, sensitivity patterns and treatment outcomes of infective corneal ulcers.
The prospective cohort study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2019 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised eyes of patients with corneal ulcer. Corneal scrapes were sent for microbiological assessment. Variables studied were age, gender, risk factors, onset and duration of symptoms, best corrected visual acuity, treatment and complications. Data was analysed using SPSS 20.
Of the 65 eyes of as many patients, 40(61.5%) were from female patients and 25(38.4%) from males. The most common local risk factor was ocular surgery 19(29.2%), followed by ocular trauma 15(23.1%). Diabetes was present in 29(44.6%) cases. Culture results after corneal scrapings were positive for 39(60%) samples, while 26(40%) had no growth. Bacterial growth was present in 20(51.3%) eyes, fungal in 11(28.2%) and polymicrobial organisms were present in 8(20.5%). The most common pathogens were pseudomonas 10(25.6%) that were most sensitive to ciprofloxacin. By the end of the follow-up, 40(61.5%) cases showed improvement.
Isolated pseudomonas was the most common pathogen. Prompt diagnosis with culture sensitivity tests are needed in developing countries to avoid blindness due to infective corneal ulcers.