Antineoplastic treatments, mainly chemotherapy, affect the kidneys, causing toxicity, and can trigger acute and chronic kidney injuries. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of renal disorders in patients with oncohematological neoplasms receiving antineoplastic treatment.
This retrospective cohort study included 75 patients with hematological cancer who underwent chemotherapy between 2012 and 2018 in the Hematology Sector of the Walter Cantídeo University Hospital of the Federal University of Ceará. Sociodemographic and clinical data, blood biochemical assessment findings, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were analyzed using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The data were tabulated; transferred to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 20.0; and analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables followed by a multinomial logistic regression model (p < 0.05).
The prevalence of renal disorders was 52.4% according to the CKD-EPI equation for GFR events. There was a significant association between the decrease in GFRs and the following variables: female sex (p = 0.002), diagnosis of multiple myeloma (p = 0.008), start of treatment within 40 days (p = 0.005), and the following antineoplastic treatments: cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (p = 0.026); irarubicin (p = 0.032); azacytidine, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide (p < 0.001); zoledronic acid (p < 0.001); and pamidronate (p = 0.012). CALGB 8811 (p < 0.001) was inversely associated with a reduction in the GFR.
The prevalence of renal disorders was high in patients with oncohematological neoplasms receiving antineoplastic treatment. This requires periodic monitoring of the evaluation of renal function since reductions in GFRs were significantly associated with different treatment protocols used.

© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.