This study assessed the risk of falls, the incidence of frailty, cognition, and nutritional status in people aged over 65 in the context of the treatment facility. To this end, we compared a group of 99 non-hospitalized patients treated in primary healthcare facilities with a group of 100 patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward. It was a survey-type study based on the following questionnaires: Mini-Mental State Examination, Tilburg Frailty Indicator, Mini Nutritional Assessment, and the Tinetti Balance and Gait Assessment. We found significant differences between non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients to the advantage of the former. A risk of falls was 56.6% vs. 85% (p < 0.001), the incidence of frailty was 51% vs. 71% (p = 0.005), and cognitive decline was 35% vs. 61% (p = 0.120), respectively. Additionally, nutritional detriment also was less expressed in outpatients. A distinctly worse overall health performance, with increased risk of falls, was confirmed in multifactorial regression analysis in hospitalized patients. We conclude that geriatric hospital setting is an independent risk factor aggravating the risk of falls, frailty, and cognitive weakness in senior persons.