Retinoblastoma is an intraocular cancer in children and infants. Despite all the available treatment options and high survival rates in children with retinoblastoma, exposure to secondary tumours in adulthood is one of the concerns that physicians face. In many cases, dysfunction of the RB1 gene is the main cause of secondary tumours due to retinoblastoma. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of other secondary tumours in children with retinoblastoma.
In this regard, we performed continuous and integrated bioinformatics analyses to find genes, protein products, and signal pathways involved in other cancers.
1170 high-expression genes and 960 low-expression genes between non-invasive and invasive retinoblastoma were isolated. After examining the signal pathways, we observed bladder cancer and small cell lung cancer in the overexpressed genes. We also observed 5 cancers of endometriosis, prostate, non-small cell lung cancer, glioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma in low-expression genes. Based on the P-value index, non-small cell lung cancer, prostate and bladder cancers had the highest risk, and endometriosis cancer showed a lower probability of developing a secondary tumour in patients with retinoblastoma. In addition, the network between proteins also showed us that TP53, CDK2, SRC, MAPK1 proteins with high expression and JUN, HSP90AA1, and UBC proteins with low-expression play a significant role in candidate cancers.
Lastly, we used continuous bioinformatics analysis to show that seven cancers are strongly linked to retinoblastoma cancer. Of course, more research is needed to find the best way to care for children who have been treated for retinoblastoma.

© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Royal College of Ophthalmologists.