Pancreatic cancer patients are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE); the value of thromboprophylaxis has not been definitively established.
This trial randomized cancer patients initiating a new regimen and at high risk for VTE (Khorana score ≥2) to rivaroxaban 10 mg or placebo up to day 180. This analysis examined the subset of pancreatic cancer patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), asymptomatic proximal DVT, any pulmonary embolism, and VTE-related death. The primary safety endpoint was International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined major bleeding.
In total, 49/1080 (4.5%) patients enrolled had baseline VTE on screening, with higher rates (24/362 [6.6%]) in pancreatic cancer and they were not randomized. Of 841 randomized patients, 273 (32.5%) had pancreatic cancer; 155/273 (57% in each arm) completed the double-blind period. The primary endpoint occurred in 13/135 (9.6%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 18/138 (13.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.43; P = .328) in up-to-day-180 period and 5/135 (3.7%) patients receiving rivaroxaban and 14/138 (10.1%) receiving placebo in the intervention period (HR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.97; P = .034). Major bleeding was similar (2 [1.5%] receiving rivaroxaban and 3 [2.3%] receiving placebo). Correlative biomarker studies demonstrated significant decline in D-dimer (weeks 8 and 16) in patients randomized to rivaroxaban compared to placebo (P < .01).
In ambulatory pancreatic cancer patients, rivaroxaban did not result in significantly lower incidence of VTE or VTE-related death in the 180-day period. During the intervention period, however, rivaroxaban substantially reduced VTE without increasing major bleeding, suggesting benefit of rivaroxaban prophylaxis in this setting.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02555878.
© 2020 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.