Xiao-Ban-Xia-Tang decoction (XBXT), an antiemetic formula in traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to be a potential treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), but the underlying mechanisms are not adequately understood. This study aimed to investigate changes in the ileum transcriptome after cisplatin and XBXT treatment and to reveal whether the antiemetic mechanisms of XBXT are related to its anti-inflammatory effect.
The pica model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of 6 mg/kg cisplatin in Wistar rats. Tissues from the gastric antrum and ileum were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe gastrointestinal tract pathological changes. Based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) which were altered by cisplatin and reversed by XBXT, the transcriptome data of rat ileum were analyzed by GO, KEGG, and PPI analyses. Several inflammatory DEGs were validated by RT-PCR.
XBXT could reduce kaolin intake up to 72 h after modeling and alleviate the inflammatory damage of gastric antrum and ileum induced by cisplatin. According to the transcriptome profile, there were 75 DEGs down-regulated by cisplatin and up-regulated by XBXT and 343 DEGs up-regulated by cisplatin and down-regulated by XBXT. XBXT could blunt the overexpression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis) in ileum. Enrichment analysis showed that inhibiting overexpression of several conventional inflammation pathways and pro-inflammation cytokines were related to the antiemetic effectiveness of XBXT.
This study implies that inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways and synthesis of serotonin might be potential mechanisms of XBXT’s antiemetic effect against CINV.

Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.