Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide ailment which leads to chronic complications like cardiac disorders, renal perturbations, limb amputation and blindness. Type one diabetes (T1DM), Type two diabetes (T2DM), Another types of diabetes, such as genetic errors in function of β-cell and action of insulin, cystic fibrosis, chemical-instigated diabetes or following tissue transplantation), and pregnancy DM (GDM). In response to nutritional ingestion, the gut may release a pancreatic stimulant that affects carbohydrate metabolism. The duodenum produces a ‘chemical excitant’ that stimulates pancreatic output, and researchers have sought to cure diabetes using gut extract injections, coining the word ‘incretin’ to describe the phenomena. Incretins include GIP and GLP-1. The ‘enteroinsular axis’ is the link between pancreas and intestine. Nutrient, neuronal and hormonal impulses from intestine to cells secreting insulin were thought to be part of this axis. In addition, the hormonal component, incretin, must meet two requirements: (1) it secreted by foods, mainly carbohydrates, and (2) it must induce an insulinotropic effect which is glucose-dependent. In this review, we clarify the ability of using incretin-dependent treatments for treating DM.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.