Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic respiratory disease. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the roles of miRNA-21 and miRNA132 as biomarkers in the diagnosis of ABPA. A total of 30 controls, 30 allergic asthmatic patients, 30 severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) patients, and 30 ABPA patients were included. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of miRNAs expression. The expression level of miRNA-21 was significantly higher in allergic asthmatic, SAFS, and ABPA patients in comparison with controls (p  0.05). The ABPA patients had significantly higher levels of miRNA-132 expression compared to controls, allergic asthmatic patients, and SAFS patients (p < 0.001), but there was a non-significant difference between controls and allergic asthmatic patients (p = 0.09). At a cut-off of 1.52, the sensitivity of miRNA-132 expression was 93.3% and the specificity was 100% different ABPA from healthy controls. At a cut-off of 6.5, miRNA-132 expression was found to reliably differentiate between ABPA and SAFS, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 80%. In ABPA patients, miRNA-132 expression positively correlation with the levels of serum IL-5 (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). miRNA-132 has a role in ABPA detection and distinguishing ABPA from allergic asthma and SAFS. These preliminary data from case-control study need further studies to confirm its finding.
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