Initial screening for proteinuria by urine dipstick test (UDT) may be useful for predicting clinical outcomes. The Shinken Database includes all the new patients visiting the Cardiovascular Institute Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Patients for whom UDT was performed at their initial visit between 2004 and 2010 (n = 7131) were divided into three groups according to the test results: negative, trace, and positive (1+ to 4+) proteinuria. During the mean follow-up period of 3.4 years, 233 (3.1%) deaths, 255 (3.6%) heart failure (HF) events, and 106 (1.5%) ischemic stroke (IS) events occurred. Prevalence of atherothrombotic risks increased with an increase in the amounts of proteinuria. The incidence of all-cause death, HF and IS events increased significantly from negative to trace to positive proteinuria groups (log rank test, P for trend < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed independent association between proteinuria and all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.10], HF (HR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.12), and IS (HR: 2.08, 95% CI 1.26-3.45). Even trace proteinuria was independently associated with HF (HR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.07-2.53) and IS (HR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.14-4.11) and with all-cause death (HR: 1.56, 95% CI 0.99-2.47). In conclusions, dipstick proteinuria was independently associated with cardiovascular events and death, suggesting that the UDT is a useful tool for evaluating patients' risk for such adverse events.
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