Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene abnormalities confer susceptibility to tuberculosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR-2, are also important mediators of inflammatory response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated VDR, TLR-2 and TLR-4 gene polymorphisms in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).
To find out a possible association of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs731236), TLR-2 (196-174 Ins > Del) and TLR-4 (Thr399Ile) gene polymorphisms with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in ethnic Kashmiri population.
A total of 100 extrapulmunary tuberculosis cases and 102 healthy controls were analyzed for Vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs731236), TLR-2 (196-174 ins > del) and TLR-4 (Thr399Ile) gene polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and Allele-Specific PCR methods.
We found increased frequency of TLR-4 Thr/Ile heterozygous genotype in cases as compared with healthy controls (22% vs 5.8%). Thus acting as a risk factor for extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as was elucidated from statistical analysis [OR, 4.5; 95% CI (1.74-11.68); P  del) we observed significant differences in the homozygous variant (Del/Del) genotype of cases and controls (28% in cases & 2.94% in controls). Thus, TLR-2 (Del/Del) genotype acts as a strong risk factor for extrapulmonary tuberculosis predisposition [OR, 12.2; 95% CI (3.5-42.69); P  C SNP between cases and controls (P > 0.05).
TLR-4 (Thr/Ile) and TLR-2 (Del/Del) act as significant risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis predisposition in ethnic Kashmiri population.

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