Renal masses detection is continually increasing worldwide, with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) accounting for approximately 90% of all renal cancers and remaining one of the most aggressive urological malignancies. Despite improvements in cancer management, accurate diagnosis and treatment strategy of RCC by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are still challenging. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is known to be highly expressed on the endothelial cells of the neovasculature of several solid tumors other than prostate cancer, including RCC. In this context, recent preliminary studies reported a promising role for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with radiolabeled molecules targeting PSMA, in alternative to fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in RCC patients.
The aim of our review is to provide an updated overview of current evidences and major limitations regarding the use of PSMA PET/CT in RCC.
A literature search, up to 31 December 2021, was performed using the following electronic databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar.
The findings of this review suggest that PSMA PET/CT could represent a valid imaging option for diagnosis, staging, and therapy response evaluation in RCC, particularly in clear cell RCC.
Further studies are needed for this “relatively” new imaging modality to consolidate its indications, timing, and practical procedures.

© 2022. The Author(s).