Diabetes aggravates the risk of tuberculosis (TB) through impairment of immunity which may lead to the activation of latent tuberculosis (LTBI). LTBI serves as a homeostatic state where host, does not develop any symptoms of the disease as host immune system assist in the containment of infection leading to granuloma formation. However, the compromised immunity imbalances this equilibrium which further leads to reactivation of LTBI. Our aim was to assess if hyperglycemia like conditions contribute towards activation of latent tuberculosis.
In vitro granuloma model was developed using peripheral blood monocytic cells (PBMCs) under normal and high glucose conditions and the characteristics of dormancy i.e. tolerance towards rifampicin, loss of acid fastness was monitored. Further, activation was assessed by expression analysis of various resuscitation promoting factors rpfA-E.
Granuloma formation was not observed in the presence of high glucose. The gene expression of hspX was downregulated whereas the expression of rpfA-E genes was upregulated under high glucose conditions after 48h of glucose treatment. The expression of rpfD gene remained upregulated till 72h of glucose treatment.
High glucose concentrations impede the granuloma formation and may lead to activation of latent tubercle bacilli through resuscitation promoting factors. Thus, rpfs represent an important targets for new interventions that can abate the burden from co-pathogenesis of tuberculosis and diabetes.

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