Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors moderately reduce glucose levels in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Some cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. However, data on the long-term safety of dapagliflozin in Saudi Arabia are lacking. The present study aimed to monitor the safety of dapagliflozin in patients with T2DM and evaluate the change in HbA1c during the observation period compared to baseline.
This was a local, prospective, single-arm, non-interventional, regulatory post-marketing study. The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia from May 2017 to September 2019. Patients received either 5 or 10 mg dapagliflozin in conjunction with diet and exercise modifications to treat T2DM. The occurrence of adverse events was observed over the treatment duration and for 3 days after administering the last dose of dapagliflozin.
A total of 527 patients were recruited in the study, 524 of which were eligible for the statistical analysis. About 62% were males. The median (IQR) age was 52.3 (14.8) years, while the median (IQR) body mass index was 31.6 (7.7) kg/m. The median (IQR) duration since the patients were first diagnosed with T2DM was 8.78 (6.73) years. The most common comorbidities were hyperlipidemia (51.1%) and hypertension (41.1%). Almost three-quarters of the study population (73.7%) received other antidiabetic medications in addition to dapagliflozin. Over a period of 12 months, a total of 106 adverse events were experienced by 65 (12.33%) patients. Vulvovaginal pruritus (3.1%), dysuria (2.7%), polyuria (1.3%), urinary tract infections (1%), fatigue (0.8%), and hypoglycemia (0.8%) were among the reported adverse events. One case of DKA (0.2%) was reported. The mean (SD) HbA1c% level significantly decreased from 8.6 (1.6) % at baseline to reach 7.2 (1.2) % after 12 months of treatment (p < 0.0001).
Dapagliflozin was found to be a well tolerated and effective treatment option for T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia. Vulvovaginal pruritus and dysuria were the most common adverse events.