Vascular dementia is the second most prevalent form of dementia. Hypertension is the leading risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and the progression of dementia that is of vascular origin. This study investigates the role of ulinastatin (UTI) and quercetin alone as well as in combination in hypertension-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia (VaD).
Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular model was set up to induce hypertension in the Albino Wistar rats (males). Rats were assessed for mean arterial blood pressure, behavioral function (Morris water maze, attention set-shifting tests), vascular endothelial function, and biochemical levels (aortic superoxide anion and serum nitrite/nitrate), as well as brains’ thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS, reduced glutathione-GSH, interleukin-6, 10, tumor necrosis factor-TNF-α and acetylcholinesterase-AChE). UTI (10,000 U/kg, ip) and quercetin (60 mg/kg) were used alone and in combination for treatment. Donepezil (0.5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control.
2K1C rats showed impairment in learning, memory, executive functioning, and reversal learning. These rats further showed endothelial dysfunction as well as an increase in mean arterial blood pressure, brains’ oxidative stress, inflammation, and AChE-activity. Treatment with UTI and quercetin alone as well in combination significantly attenuated the 2K1C model induced impairments in the behavioural, biochemical, and endothelial parameters.
2K1C renovascular hypertension-induced impairment in behavioural, biochemical, and endothelial parameters were attenuated by the treatment with UTI and quercetin alone as well as in combination. Therefore, the utility of these agents might be studied further to understand their full potential in hypertension-induced VaD.

© 2022. The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Maj Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences.