Schnitzler syndrome is a rare disease of adult-onset with main features including chronic urticarial rash, recurrent fever, arthralgia or arthritis, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and marked systemic inflammation. Schnitzler syndrome is often underdiagnosed. Patients with Schnitzler syndrome may present to dermatologists and allergists for urticaria, hematologists for MGUS, or rheumatologists for arthritis. It is important to recognize Schnitzler syndrome for its remarkable response to interleukin (IL)-1 blockade. Besides, many cases of Schnitzler-like syndromes do not meet the diagnostic criteria of classical Schnitzler syndrome but display excellent response to IL-1 inhibitors. The overly produced IL-1 is the result of a somatic mosaic gain of function mutation of NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptor [NLR] family pyrin domain containing 3) gene in some patients with Schnitzler-like syndromes. Inflammasome activation is evident in patients with classical Schnitzler syndrome although no NLRP3 gene mutation is identified. Collectively, Schnitzler syndrome and Schnitzler-like syndromes represent a spectrum of IL-1 mediated adult-onset autoinflammatory diseases.
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