Second primary malignancy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma after Chernobyl accident is an emerging problem. The aims of the study are to investigate the rates and distribution of second primary malignant tumours in Belarus survivors of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma and the cumulative rate of developing a second primary malignancy in a group of patients with metachronous second primaries.
Patients aged 18 or younger at the time of Chernobyl accident who were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma after 1986 were identified from the Belarus Cancer Registry. The clinical and demographic of these patients were analysed to correlate with the factors for the development of secondary primary cancer.
Secondary primary cancer was detected in 1.8 % (119 of 6559) of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The cumulative incidence tended to rise with increasing age of the cohort and varied depending on the sex of patients. In female patients, breast carcinoma and genital tract carcinomas prevailed, in men patients – lymphoma/ leukaemia and the alimentary tract malignancies predominated. A significant excess risk was revealed for breast carcinoma in females, colon carcinoma in males, and the urinary system carcinomas in males (absolute excess risk [AER] = 3.23, 3.01 and 2.17 correspondingly). Overall, our results pointed to the increased risk of new solid primaries in females, males and both genders (AER = 3.31, 7.19, 4.28 correspondingly) as well as increase risk of lymphoid/hematopoietic malignancies in females and both genders (AER = 1.24) and leukaemia in male patients (AER = 1.45).
Patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma after Chernobyl accident are at risk of secondary primary malignancy. Awareness and screening of secondary cancer is needed for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma after Chernobyl accident.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.