Anhedonia remains a major clinical issue for which there is few effective interventions. Untreated or poorly controlled anhedonia has been linked to worse disease course and increased suicidal behavior across disorders. Taking a proof-of-mechanism approach under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health FAST-FAIL initiative, we were the first to show that in a transdiagnostic sample screened for elevated self-reported anhedonia, 8 weeks of treatment with a kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist resulted in significantly higher reward-related activation in one of the core hubs of the brain reward system (the ventral striatum), better reward learning in the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT), and lower anhedonic symptoms, relative to 8 weeks of placebo. Here, we performed secondary analyses of the PRT data to investigate the putative effects of KOR antagonism on anhedonic behavior with more precision by using trial-level model-based Bayesian computational modeling and probability analyses. We found that, relative to placebo, KOR antagonism resulted in significantly higher learning rate (i.e., ability to learn from reward feedback) and a more sustained preference toward the more frequently rewarded stimulus, but unaltered reward sensitivity (i.e., the hedonic response to reward feedback). Collectively, these findings provide novel evidence that in a transdiagnostic sample characterized by elevated anhedonia, KOR antagonism improved the ability to modulate behavior as a function of prior rewards. Together with confirmation of target engagement in the primary report (Krystal et al., Nat Med, 2020), the current findings suggest that further transdiagnostic investigation of KOR antagonism for anhedonia is warranted.