The impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) on male fertility and associated reproductive outcomes have not been clarified.
To elucidate the prevalence of seminal HPV infection and assess the associated effects on seminal parameters, male infertility and reproductive outcomes.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Cochrane databases. Studies published until November 2019 were included. HPV prevalence, risk of infertility, seminal parameters and reproductive outcomes were evaluated among the general population and infertile men.
Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of seminal HPV infection is significantly higher in infertile compared to the general population (20.9% versus 8.2%). A significant association between seminal HPV infection and male infertility (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.87-5.84), even when adjusting for female infertility (OR 3.02, 95% CI = 2.11-4.33) was founded. In addition, HPV infection is related to a significant decrease in progressive motility (DM -10.35, IC -13.75, -6.96), a low sperm morphology score (DM -2.46, 95% CI -3.83, -1.08) and a significant increase in the sperm DNA fragmentation index (7.24, 95% CI compared with HPV-negative patients. It was also observed an increased risk of miscarriage (OR 5.13, 95% CI 2.40,10.94), and a reduced chance of ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.33, IC 95% 0.13,0,82) in patients undergoing ART with seminal HPV infection.
Infertile men have a higher prevalence of seminal HPV infection compared to the general population, regardless of the HPV genotype detected.
HPV in semen may have an impact in sperm quality and reproductive outcomes. Additional well-designed studies are warranted to improve the quality of evidence.

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