Calprotectin plays an important role during inflammation. We intended to explore the prognostic value of serum calprotectin levels in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI).
In this prospective cohort study of 149 sTBI patients, we determined the relationship between serum calprotectin levels and 90-day overall survival plus poor outcome (Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3) after sTBI, and analyzed its associations with Rotterdam computerized tomography (CT) scores, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and two markers of inflammatory reaction including serum C-reactive protein levels and blood leucocyte count.
Serum calprotectin levels were significantly correlated with Rotterdam CT scores, GCS scores, serum C-reactive protein levels and blood leucocyte count. Patients with poor outcome at 90 days displayed higher serum calprotectin levels than the other remainders. Serum calprotectin appeared as an independent predictor for 90-day overall survival and poor outcome. Under receiver operating characteristic curve, serum calprotectin levels exhibited an efficient discrimination capacity for 90-day poor outcome.
Serum calprotectin levels are significantly correlated with inflammation, trauma severity and poor outcome at 90 days in sTBI patients, suggesting that serum calprotectin may be a biomarker for providing complementary prognostic information to identify patients at risk of poor outcome after sTBI.

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