Paradoxical embolism from venous thrombosis through the patent foramen ovale is a rare but well-known cause of stroke in young adults. Here, we report a case of simultaneous middle cerebral artery infarction, multiple occlusions of the leg arteries, and pulmonary thromboembolism from the venous thrombus, all due to compression of the external iliac vein by a uterine leiomyoma.
A 44-year-old woman presented with left hemiparesis and central-type left facial palsy. She denied a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, previous cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. The patient recovered completely after injection of tissue plasminogen activator. Brain diffusion-weighted imaging showed an acute right middle cerebral artery infarction. Transcranial Doppler with saline agitation test revealed a right-to-left shunt, suggesting a patent foramen ovale. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary thromboembolisms. Lower extremity sonography and lower extremity computed tomography revealed a multifocal thrombus in the major veins and arteries of the left leg. Moreover, a large uterine myoma compressing the left external iliac vein was noted on lower extremity computed tomography.
After the treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism and venous thrombosis with rivaroxaban, surgical thrombectomy of the left popliteal artery, patent foramen ovale closure, and total hysterectomy were performed. Subsequently, she had no recurrent paradoxical embolism or pulmonary thromboembolism.
Structural abnormalities in the pelvic cavity are not commonly suspected as stroke etiology. However, examination of the pelvic cavity is advisable in young female stroke patients with pulmonary thromboembolism or other paradoxical embolisms.

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