Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the worst brain tumors arising from glial cells, causing many deaths annually. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy are used for GBM treatment. However, GBM is still an incurable disease, and new approaches are required for its successful treatment. Because mutations and amplifications occurring in several genes are responsible for the progression and aggressive behavior of GBM cells, genetic approaches are of great importance in its treatment. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a new emerging tool to silence the genes responsible for disease progression, particularly cancer. SiRNA can be used for GBM treatment by down-regulating genes such as VEGF, STAT3, ELTD1 or EGFR. Furthermore, the use of siRNA can promote the chemosensitivity of GBM cells. However, the efficiency of siRNA in GBM is limited by its degradation by enzymes, and its off-targeting effects. SiRNA-loaded carriers, especially nanovehicles that are ligand-functionalized by CXCR4 or angiopep-2, can be used for the protection and targeted delivery of siRNA. Nanostructures can provide a platform for co-delivery of siRNA plus anti-tumor drugs as another benefit. The prepared nanovehicles should be stable and biocompatible in order to be tested in human studies.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.