Fine particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is of high priority for air quality management efforts to address adverse health effects in human. We believe that emission control policies, which are traditionally guided by source contributions to PM mass, should also consider source contributions to PM health effects or toxicity. In this study, we estimated source contributions to the toxic potentials of organic aerosols (OA) as measured by a series of chemical and in-vitro biological assays and chemical mass balance model. We selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA), vehicles, biomass open burning, and cooking as possible important OA sources. Fine particulate matter samples from these sources and parallel atmospheric samples from diverse locations and seasons in East Asia were collected for the study. The source and atmospheric samples were analyzed for chemical compositions and toxic potentials, i.e. oxidative potential, inflammatory potential, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity, and DNA-damage, were measured. The toxic potentials per organic carbon (OC) differed greatly among source and ambient particulate samples. The source contributions to oxidative and inflammatory potentials were dominated by naphthalene-derived SOA (NapSOA), followed by open burning and vehicle exhaust. The AhR activity was dominated by open burning, followed by vehicle exhaust and NapSOA. The DNA damage was dominated by vehicle exhaust, followed by open burning. Cooking and biogenic SOA had smaller contributions to all the toxic potentials. Regarding atmospheric OA, urban and roadside samples showed stronger toxic potentials per OC. The toxic potentials of remote samples in summer were consistently very weak, suggesting that atmospheric aging over a long time decreased the toxicity. The toxic potentials of the samples from the forest and the experimentally generated biogenic SOA were low, suggesting that toxicity of biogenic primary and secondary particles is relatively low.