Yttrium-90 (Y) is one of the most widely used radionuclides in Nuclear Medicine practice. However, characteristic energy of this beta emitter constitutes a difficulty for dose planning using SPECT imaging. This work aimed to study bremsstrahlung X-rays effects produced by Y beta particles during SPECT image acquisition using Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Several simulations were carried out to evaluate different aspects that could affect SPECT image quality, such as: collimator type, source-collimator distance and composition of each interacting material. Two configurations of Y sources were simulated: a point source in several spheres of different materials (soft tissue, water, articular cartilage, and bone) and dimensions with radius ranging from 1 to 20 mm; and a uniformly distributed source in a Lucite cylindrical phantom filled with water. It was evaluated the bremsstrahlung photon emission generated inside different materials; for this was considered the number photons that passing through every different sphere’s surface for each radii and material. In case of cylindrical phantom filled with water, in order to obtain the energy deposited over NaI (Tl) crystal detector; there was considered Median Energy General Purpose (MEGP) and Low Energy High Resolution (LEHR) collimators. Moreover, using TMESH routine available in the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, energy distribution images according to the collimator type and the source-collimator distance were obtained. The simulation was validated by comparing with the spectral distribution of the Y bremsstrahlung X-rays obtained experimentally from an acrylic cylindrical phantom. Results corroborated the importance of Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate a performance of SPECT image acquisition with Y. The best resolution was obtained with MEGP collimator independent of source-collimator distance.
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