Ziziphus mauritana Lam leaves were used to treat asthma, diabetes, pain, and inflammation in the Indian traditional system of medicine. The leaves of the Ziziphus mauritiana Lam were consumed as a vegetable in Indonesia and India. The present study aims to predict the pharmacokinetic properties of flavonoids identified & quantified through U(H)PLC and to evaluate the safety of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritana Lam leaves (MEZ) in rats. A U(H)PLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS was performed to identify flavonoids present in MEZ and quantified using U(H)PLC method. The in-silico ADME properties of the flavonoids were analyzed using Schrodinger Maestro software. The acute oral toxicity study was performed by administering a single dose of MEZ (5000 mg/kg) in female rats and observed for 14 days. The sub-chronic studies were carried out by oral administration of MEZ at 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg daily for 90 days. The changes in hematological parameters, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology were observed after the treatment period. Eight flavonoids rutin, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, catechin, and apigenin were identified from were identified in UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. These results showed the highest amount of luteolin (5.41 μg/ml) and kaempferol (4.02 μg/ml) present in MEZ. No signs of toxicity or mortality were observed in acute toxicity studies. In the sub-chronic studies, data showed that MEZ does not produce any changes in hematological and clinical biochemical parameters compared to control rats. MEZ (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, in male rats, which was more prominent on day 90. The histopathological analysis also revealed no changes in the vital organs. These results conclude that MEZ was considered safe and well-tolerated in rats.
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