Poor glycemic control is associated with mortality in critical patients with diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the predicting value of stress hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes following hospital admission for sepsis.
Retrospective observational study.
Adult, emergency department, and critical care in a district hospital.
In a 10-year retrospective analysis of sepsis-related hospitalizations in the emergency department, we carried out a secondary analysis of 915 patients with diabetes (males, 54.0%) in whom both fasting glucose at entry and glycosylated hemoglobin were available.
Patients’ mean age was 79.0 (sd 11.0), glucose at admission was 174.0 mg/dL (74.3 mg/dL), and glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.7% (1.7%). Stress hyperglycemia was defined by the stress hyperglycemia ratio, that is, fasting glucose concentration at admission divided by the estimated average glucose derived from glycosylated hemoglobin. A total of 305 patients died (33.3%) in hospital. Factors associated with in-hospital case fatality rate were tested by multivariable logistic model. Ten variables predicting outcomes in the general population were confirmed in the presence of diabetes (male sex, older age, number of organ dysfunction diagnoses, in particular cardiovascular dysfunction, infection/parasitic, circulatory, respiratory, digestive diseases diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index). In addition, also glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin: odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15-1.40) and stress hyperglycemia (stress hyperglycemia ratio: 5.25; 3.62-7.63) were significant case fatality rate predictors. High stress hyperglycemia ratio (≥ 1.14) significantly increased the discriminant capacity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.864; se, 0.013; < 0.001).
Stress hyperglycemia, even in the presence of diabetes, is predictive of mortality following admission for sepsis. Stress hyperglycemia ratio may be used to refine prediction of an unfavorable outcome.

Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the Society of Critical Care Medicine.