In-vitro fertilization (IVF) has been very popular since the birth of the first “test-tube” baby. This method is the last hope and the most serious solution for couples with infertility problems. Although childbearing is a concern of many couples, it must always be noted that any method can also have disadvantages. Thus, many studies have been done on the problems encountered by this method.
We searched for relevant articles in Pub Med, Springer, Elsevier, and Google Scholar databases, and studied more than 70 papers. Keywords used included ovarian cancer, in vitro fertilization, gonadotropin hormone, clomiphene citrate, and infertility.
Due to the large number of studies, high doses of the ovulation-stimulating drugs and their repeated use in this method can increase the risk of the ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS), and ovarian cysts, which can lead to ovarian cancer. Also, an increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer can be due to the increased duration of treatment for up to 12 months and the high doses of medications that are followed by defecation and failure of this treatment.
Due to the increase in the rates of infertility treatments and the incidence of gynecological cancers, especially ovarian cancer, this method need to be used with caution. IVF clients and candidates should be informed about potential future risks. People should be evaluated genetically for their history of ovarian cancer and be more aware of the importance of “Personalized medicine”.

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