IOTA (International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) Simple Rules classifies adnexal masses as benign, malignant, or indeterminate based on sonographic features. We seek to determine if IOTA inappropriately directed women to surgery, or more aggressive surgery, than their final diagnosis warranted. This is a retrospective study of sonographically detected adnexal masses with known clinical outcomes from two institutions (n = 528). Surgically managed patients (n = 172) were categorized based on pathology and compared using Chi-square and t-test for categorical and continuous variables respectively. A logistic regression was used to predict characteristics that predicted surgery or imaging follow up of indeterminate masses. Of the 528 masses imaged, 29% (n = 155) underwent surgery for benign pathology. Only 1.9% (n = 10) underwent surgery after classification as malignant by IOTA for what was ultimately a benign mass. Surgical complications occurred in 10 cases (5.8%), all benign. Fifteen (3.2%) patients went into surgically induced menopause for benign masses, one of which was inaccurately classified by IOTA as malignant. Of the 41 IOTA indeterminate masses, the presence of soft tissue nodules on ultrasound was the only statistically significant predictor of the patient being triaged directly to surgery (OR 1.79, p = 0.04). Our findings support that the IOTA ultrasound classification system can provide clinical guidance without incurring unnecessary surgeries or surgical complications.
© 2022. The Author(s).