To review the demographics, treatment, and survival of pediatric melanoma of the head and neck and to determine if melanoma of the head and neck has worse survival than melanoma of other body sites.
Retrospective database review.
Pediatric patients from 0 to 21 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries database were included from 1975 to 2016 based on a diagnosis of melanoma of the skin using the primary site International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition codes from of lip, C44.1-eyelid, C44.2-external ear, C44.3-skin other/unspecified parts of face, C44.4-skin of scalp and neck, C44.5-skin of trunk, C44.6-skin of upper limb and shoulder, C44.7-skin of lower limb and hip, C44.8-overlapping lesion of skin, and C44.9-skin, NOS (not otherwise specified).
A total of 4,561 pediatric melanomas of the skin were identified. There were 854 (18.7%) cases of melanoma of the head and neck (MHN) and 3,707 (81.3%) cases of melanoma of the body (MOB). The hazard ratio for MHN versus MOB was 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.1) after accounting for sex, race, and age. Of MHN sites, the hazard ratio for melanoma of the scalp and neck was 2.2 (1.1-4.7). The 2- and 5-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival for MHN were 94.6% and 90.7%, respectively, compared with 96.6% and 94.7%, respectively, for MOB (P < .01).
Survival outcomes of pediatric melanoma are notably related to anatomic site. Children with melanoma of the scalp and neck have the worst survival of all sites. Additionally, children who are older/white/male are at greater risk for worse survival outcomes.
3 Laryngoscope, 2020.

© 2020 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.