Italy is the sixth most populous country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 for women. However, Italy has one of the lowest total fertility rates in the world: in 2018 it was 1.3 births per woman, with the population older than 65 comprising more than 30%, and those younger-than-19 less than 15%. Older people are the main concern of the Italian health system. Weighted coefficients for the allocation of funds favour older adults. As confirmed by our study, paediatric radiology is expensive, and the reimbursement based on Italian adult rates is not sufficient. The negative impact on the budget discourages the diffusion of paediatric radiology both in the private practices that provide services paid for by the state government and in the public hospitals. The 501 paediatric hospital units in Italy are not homogeneously distributed throughout the national territory. Furthermore, in Italy there are 12 highly specialised children’s hospitals whose competences were defined in 2005 by the Ministry of Health. Paediatric radiology is not included among the highly qualified specialties. The quality gap in paediatric radiology between children’s hospitals and general hospitals, the latter often without paediatric radiologists, is evident in daily practice with misdiagnoses and investigations not carried out.