Autocrine motility factor (AMF) stimulates the motility of cancer cells via an autocrine route and has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Overexpression of AMF is correlated with the aggressive nature of breast cancer and is negatively associated with clinical outcomes. In contrast, AMF also has the ability to suppress cancer cells. In this study, AMFs from different cancer cells were demonstrated to have suppressive activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In a growth and colony formation assay, AMF from AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells (ASPC-1:AMF) was determined to be more suppressive compared to other AMFs. It was also demonstrated that AsPC-1:AMF could arrest breast cancer cells at the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Quantified by Western blot analysis, AsPC-1:AMF lowered levels of the AMF receptor (AMFR) and G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), concomitantly regulating the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling pathways. JAK/STAT activation was also decreased. These results were found in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cells but not in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that AsPC-1:AMF could work through multiple pathways led to apoptosis. More importantly, AsPC-1:AMF and methyl jasmonate (MJ) cooperatively and synergistically acted against breast cancer cells. Thus, AMF alone or along with MJ may be a promising breast cancer treatment option.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.