In vitro follicular maturation (IVFM) of ovarian follicles is an emerging option for fertility preservation. Many paracrine factors and two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) environments have been used for optimization. However, since most studies were conducted using the murine model, the physiological differences between mice and humans limit the interpretation and adaptation of the results. Marmoset monkey is a non-human primate (NHPs) with more similar reproductive physiology to humans. In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D matrix (Matrtigel)-based IVFM condition for marmoset ovarian follicles in combination with anti-apoptotic factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP).
Marmoset follicles were isolated as individual follicles and cultured in a single drop with the addition of 0, 10, and 100 μg/mL of XIAP molecules. Matured oocytes and granulosa cells from mature follicles were collected and analyzed. The average number of isolated follicles was less than 100, and primordial and antral follicles were abundant in the ovaries.
IVFM of marmoset follicles in 3D matrix conditions with XIAP increased the rates of survival and in vitro follicle development. Furthermore, oocytes from the 3D cultures were successfully fertilized and developed in vitro. The addition of XIAP increased the secretion of estradiol and aromatase. Furthermore, expression of granulosa-specific genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein 15, Oct4, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor were upregulated in the in vitro-matured follicles than in normal, well-grown, and atretic follicles. Apoptosis-related B-cell lymphoma-2 was highly expressed in the atretic follicles than in the XIAP-treated follicles, and higher caspase-3 was localized in the XIAP-treated follicles.
In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D-matrix-based marmoset IVFM condition and demonstrated the synergistic effects of XIAP. The use of a 3D matrix may be applied as an optimal culture condition for marmoset ovarian follicles.

© 2021. The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society.