Boride, which belongs to the distinct category of ceramic materials, has attracted significant attention in tissue engineering applications. Magnesium diboride (MgB2) consists of a plane of magnesium atoms sandwiched between the layers of boron. Even though MgB2 showed its role in various applications, its effect on osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. In this study, we synthesized MgB2 nanosheets (MgB2NS), a new class of 2D-nanoscale structures, by the ultrasonication exfoliation method and incorporated them into a polymeric mixture of alginate (Alg) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by the freeze-drying procedure. The synthesized scaffolds (Alg/PVA/MgB2NS) were characterized by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, protein adsorption, swelling, degradation, and biomineralization studies. These scaffolds were non-toxic to mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). MgB2NS in the scaffolds enhanced osteoblast differentiation of mMSCs at the molecular level by the expression of Runx2 and osteoblast differentiation marker genes and at the cellular level by alkaline phosphatase, alizarin Red and von Kossa staining. Overall, our results showed that MgB2NS in Alg/PVA scaffolds have osteogenic potential, suggesting their possible use in bone tissue engineering applications.
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