, a pathogen often responsible for musculoskeletal infections in children is the most common cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in children 6 to 36 months of age. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of previous studies to determine the proportion of in bacteriologically proven musculoskeletal infections among the pediatric population. A secondary objective was to describe the diagnostic strategies and outcome of patients with musculoskeletal infections caused by . A systematic review was conducted to identify publications that report on musculoskeletal infections caused by in the pediatric population (patients 0 to <18 years old with microbiologic culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of and a description of the musculoskeletal infection involved). Of 144 studies included in this review, we sought to determine the proportion of pediatric musculoskeletal infections. A total of 711 (30.8%) out of 2308 pediatric cases with culture and/or PCR proven musculoskeletal infections had successfully identified from twenty-nine studies. Of the 1070 patients who were aged less than 48 months, was the organism identified in 47.6% of infections. We found the average age from the collated studies to be 17.73 months. Of 520 pediatric musculoskeletal patients in which infections were identified and where the studies reported the sites of infection, a large proportion of cases (65%) were joint infections. This was followed by 18.4% osteoarticular infection (concomitant bone and joint involvement), with isolated bone and spine at 11.9% and 3.5%, respectively. Twenty-one papers reported clinical and laboratory findings in children with confirmed infection. The median temperature reported at admission was 37.9°C and mean was 38.2°C. Fourteen studies reported on impact and treatment, with the majority of children experiencing good clinical outcome and function following antibiotic treatment with no serious orthopaedic sequelae.© 2020 Wong et al.
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