Glioblastoma remains as the most common and aggressive primary adult brain tumor to date. Within the last decade, cancer immunotherapy surfaced as a broadly successful therapeutic approach for a variety of cancers. However, due to the neuroanatomical and immunosuppressive nature of malignant gliomas, conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments garner limited efficacy in patients with these tumors. The intricate structure of the blood brain barrier restricts immune accessibility into the tumor microenvironment, and malignant gliomas can activate various adaptive responses to subvert anticancer immune responses and reinstate an immunosuppressive milieu. Yet, evidence of lymphocyte infiltration within the brain and recent advancements made in cell engineering technologies implicate the vast potential in the future of neuro-oncological immunotherapy. Previous immunotherapy platforms have paved way to improved modalities, which includes but is not limited to personalized vaccines and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. This review will cover the various neuroanatomical and immunosuppressive features of central nervous system tumors and highlight the innovations made in T-cell based therapies to overcome the challenges presented by the glioblastoma microenvironment.
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