The growing recognition of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders has revealed the limitations of current treatment (mainly based on dietary modification and corticosteroids), and include refractoriness, high recurrence rates, and the need for long-term therapy. Research efforts, mainly in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), have unveiled essential pathophysiological mechanisms leading to these disorders, which bear some similarities to those of atopic manifestations and are shared by eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Novel targeted therapies, some imported from bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis, are currently being assessed in EoE. The most promising are monoclonal antibodies, including those targeting interleukin (IL)-13 (cendakimab) and IL-4 (dupilumab), with phase 3 trials currently ongoing. The potential of anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab) and Siglec-8 blockers (antolimab) in EGE are also promising. Non-biological therapies for eosinophilic gut disorders, which include preventing the activation of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and chemoattractant receptor expressed on T helper 2 cells (CRTH2) signaling pathways, and other potential targets that deserve investigation in eosinophilic gut disorders, are reviewed.

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PubMed