Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disease of which infection, as well as inflammation, has recently been considered as an important cause. Inflammation works as a potential pathway for the pathogenesis of IBS. In this review, we have discussed the targeted therapy of IBS. We used the search term “inflammation in IBS” and “proinflammatory” and “antiinflammatory cytokines and IBS” using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The literature search included only articles written in the English language. We have also reviewed currently available anti-inflammatory treatment and future perspectives. Cytokine imbalance in the systematic circulation and the intestinal mucosa may also characterize IBS presentation. Imbalances of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and polymorphisms in cytokine genes have been reported in IBS. The story of targeted therapy of IBS with anti-inflammatory cytokines is far from complete and it seems that it has only just begun. This review describes the key issues related to pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with IBS, molecular regulation of immune response in IBS, inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines in IBS, and clinical perspectives of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in IBS.
© 2021. The Author(s).