Evaluation of tear film break-up pattern (TFBUP) is the main diagnostic method for tear film-oriented therapy (TFOT) of dry eye. This prospective, observational study examined TFBUPs in 154 eyes/sides from 78 patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) who met the diagnostic criteria for dry eye in Japan. TFBUPs were classified as area, line, spot, dimple, and random breaks. Results for the status of TED and dry eye were compared between the TFBUPs. Consequently, line, spot, dimple, and random breaks were observed in 80 (51.9%), 29 (18.8%), 10 (6.5%), and 35 eyes (22.7%) while no eyes showed area breaks. The random break group had the highest incidence of lid lag/Graefe sign and superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK) (P < 0.050). Although the incidence of each TFBUP is almost equal in patients with simple dry eye without TED, line breaks were more frequently observed in TED. In addition, while random breaks in simple dry eye are usually only associated with minor ocular surface damages, those in TED were associated with a higher incidence of concomitant SLK. These results will be helpful for understanding the etiology of dry eye in TED and for TFOT in TED.