An increasing number of incidental testicular tumors are diagnosed in patients during infertility workup. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section examination (FSE) for the management of these tumors.
We retrospectively studied a series of 46 testicular tumors diagnosed during exploration for infertility from 2000 to 2019 and submitted for FSE.
A diagnosis of malignancy was made in 23 cases on both gross examination (yellow-white or cream-colored nodules for seminomas) and FSE, then confirmed on final diagnosis in 22 of the cases. One seminoma reported on FSE was revised as being a Leydig cell tumor. The 23 other lesions were diagnosed as benign on FSE, including 11 Leydig cell tumors (yellow-brown nodules), 2 Leydig cell hyperplasias, and 10 whitish fibrous lesions. All Leydig cell lesions were confirmed except 1, which was reclassified as a Sertoli cell tumor. Of the 10 cases of fibrous lesions, 6 were associated with malignancy.
The high incidence of Leydig cell tumors and the accuracy of FSE for these lesions demonstrate the interest in FSE. In contrast, FSE is not reliable for fibrous lesions, and surgeons should be aware that a fibrosis result often corresponds with regressed tumors.

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